What Classifies as a Spinal Disorder?

The following is a list of spinal disorders that was taken from the WHO Technical report series 919, 2003.

SPECIFIC (15-20%)

  • Congenital
    • Interspinous pseudarthrosis
    • Scoliosis
    • Spina bifida
    • Spondylolisthesis
    • Vertebral epiphysitis
  • Degenerative
    • Spinal stenosis
    • Spondylolisthesis
  • Infectious
    • Epidural abscess
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Bacterial
    • Tuberculosis (Pott disease)
    • Other infections
    • Paraspinous abscess
    • Septic arthritis
    • Septic discitis
    • Inflammatory
  • Arthritides
    • Ankylosing spondylitis
    • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
    • Psoriatic spondylitis (sacroiliitis)
    • Reiter syndrome
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Seronegative spondyloarthropathy
  • Fibrosis secondary to inflammation
    • Arachnoiditis
    • Epineural fibrosis
    • Intraneural fibrosis
  • Inflammation of nerve roots
    • Neuritis
    • Radiculitis
    • Vertebral osteochondritis
  • Metabolic
    • Osteochondrosis (Scheuerman disease)
    • Osteomalacia
    • Osteopenia
    • Osteoporosis
    • Osteitis fibrocystica
    • Ochronotic spondylosis
    • Paget’s disease
  • Neoplastic
    • Bone tumour
    • Benign
    • Malignant
    • Metastatic
    • Intradural and epidural tumours
    • Meningeal carcinomatosis
    • Multiple myeloma
  • Traumatic
    • Dislocation or subluxation
    • Fractures of the vertebrae
    • Intervertebral disc herniation

NON-SPECIFIC (80–85%)

  • Degenerative
    • Degenerative disc
    • Degenerative joint
    • Facet joint
    • Herniated intervertebral disc
    • Hyperlordosis
    • Kyphosis
    • Lumbar spondylosis
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Osteophytes
    • Spinal instability
  • Idiopathic back pain
    • Muscular disorders
    • Acute muscle fatigue
    • Acute strain
    • Acute reflex muscle spasm
    • Chronic strain
    • Fibromyalgia
    • Myofascial pain syndrome
  • Traumatic
    • Apophyseal (facet) joint disorder
    • Coccydynia
    • Episacral lipoma
    • Intervertebral disc herniation
    • Lumbosacral joint sprain
    • Muscle atrophy
    • Postural disorders
    • Sacroiliac joint sprain
    • Whiplash
  • Referred back pain
    • Congenital
    • Sickle-cell anaemia
    • Neoplastic
    • Lymphoma
    • Infectious
    • Abdominal abscess
    • Bacterial endocarditis
    • Retroperitoneal masses
    • Carcinomatous lymphadenopathy
    • Hodgkin’s disease
    • Vascular
    • Aortic aneurysm
    • Embolism of the renal artery
    • Myocardial ischaemia
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Visceral
    • Kidney or ureter
    • Stomach and colon
    • Urinary bladder and prostate
    • Uterus and adnexa
    • Lymphosarcoma
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